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1999 Atlantic hurricane season
First system formed June 11, 1999
Last system dissipated November 23, 1999
Strongest storm Floyd - 921 mbar, 155 mph
Total depressions 16
Total storms 12
Hurricanes 8
Major hurricanes 5
ACE index 177
Total fatalities 87 Direct, 41 - 51 Indirect
Total damage $8.58 Billion (1999 USD)

The 1999 Atlantic hurricane season was a slightly above-average season. This season featured a total of 16 tropical cyclones, 12 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 5 major hurricanes. The two most notable storms were Floyd, and Lenny. Floyd, the strongest storm of the season, struck North Carolina as only a Category 2. However, it caused 57 direct deaths, 20-30 indirect deaths and $6.9 Billion 1999 USD in damage. While Lenny, is known for the unusual, extended west-to-east track, it caused $685.8 Million 1999 USD in damage throughout the Caribbean Sea.

Timelines

Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale


Storms

Tropical Storm Arlene

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Arlene 06-13-1999 1215Z.png Arlene 1999 track.png
Duration June 11 – June 18
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

Arlene, the first tropical storm of the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season, spent its life at sea in the central Atlantic. Arlene passed roughly 100 n mi east of Bermuda, but did not bring tropical storm force winds to the islands.[1]

Tropical Depression Two

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Depression Two1999.jpg 2-L 1999 track.png
Duration July 2 – July 3
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Bret

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Bret 08-22-1999 1431Z.png Bret 1999 track.png
Duration August 18 – August 25
Peak intensity 145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  944 mbar (hPa)

Bret was a small hurricane that made landfall along a sparsely-populated section of the south Texas coast with sustained winds up to 100 knots. Bret was the first hurricane to strike the Texas coast since Hurricane Jerry in October 1989. It was the first hurricane to affect south Texas since Hurricane Allen in August 1980, and it was the strongest since Hurricane Alicia in 1983.[2]

Hurricane Cindy

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Cindy 08-28-1999 1245Z.png Cindy 1999 track.png
Duration August 19 – August 31
Peak intensity 140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  942 mbar (hPa)

Cindy had a long track across the Atlantic with no direct impact on land.[3]

Hurricane Dennis

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
463px-Hurricane Dennis Aug 30 1999.png Dennis 1999 track.png
Duration August 24 – September 7
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  962 mbar (hPa)

Dennis was a larger-than-average western Atlantic hurricane that was erratic in both track and intensity. Although it never made landfall as a hurricane, it affected the North Carolina coast with hurricane force winds, heavy rains, prolonged high surf, and beach erosion. Dennis also produced tropical storm force winds over portions of the Bahamas.[4]

Tropical Storm Emily

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Emily 08-25-1999 1715Z.png Emily 1999 track.png
Duration August 24 – August 28
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

Emily formed about 360 n mi east of the southern Windward Islands and its track and intensity were primarily controlled by the much larger circulation of Hurricane Cindy.[5]

Tropical Depression Seven

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Depession Seven 06 sept 1999 1315Z.jpg 7-L 1999 track.png
Duration September 5 – September 7
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Floyd

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Floyd 09-13-1999 1415Z.png Floyd 1999 track.png
Duration September 7 – September 17
Peak intensity 155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  921 mbar (hPa)

Floyd was a large and intense Cape Verde hurricane that pounded the central and northern Bahama islands, seriously threatened Florida, struck the coast of North Carolina and moved up the United States east coast into New England. It neared the threshold of category five intensity on the Saffir/Simpson Hurricane Scale as it approached the Bahamas, and produced a flood disaster of immense proportions in the eastern United States, particularly in North Carolina.[6]

Hurricane Gert

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Gert 09-15-1999 1715Z.png Gert 1999 track.png
Duration September 11 – September 23
Peak intensity 150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  930 mbar (hPa)

Gert was a 130-knot hurricane that moved across the central north Atlantic Ocean. It briefly produced hurricane force winds at Bermuda and high waves along the southeast coast of Newfoundland.[7]

Tropical Storm Harvey

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Harvey 09-20-1999 1740Z.png Harvey 1999 track.png
Duration September 19 – September 22
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Harvey, which formed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and moved across southern Florida, produced heavy rainfall over portions of southwest Florida.[8]

Tropical Depression Eleven

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
11L 10-04-1999 2015Z.png 11-L 1999 track.png
Duration October 4 – October 6
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Twelve

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
12L 10-06-1999 1815Z.png 12-L 1999 track.png
Duration October 6 – October 8
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1007 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Irene

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
220px-Hurricane Irene (1999)- SC.JPG Irene 1999 track.png
Duration October 12 – October 19
Peak intensity 110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  960 mbar (hPa)

Irene was a typical wet October tropical cyclone that moved over the Florida Keys and southeast Florida dumping from 10 to 20 inches of rain. This resulted in severe flooding conditions. This type of tropical cyclone was a common phenomena during the 30's and 40's. Figure 1 shows the track of Irene over Cuba and Florida.[9]

Hurricane Jose

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Jose 10-20-1999 1515Z.png Jose 1999 track.png
Duration October 17 – October 25
Peak intensity 100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  979 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Katrina

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Katrina 10-29-1999 1915Z.png Katrina 1999 track.png
Duration October 28 – November 1
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  999 mbar (hPa)

Katrina was a tropical depression that briefly became a 35-knot tropical storm while moving onshore on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua.[10]

Hurricane Lenny

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Lenny 11-17-1999 1815Z.png Lenny 1999 track.png
Duration November 13 – November 23
Peak intensity 155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  933 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Lenny was the fifth category-four hurricane on the Saffir/Simpson Hurricane Scale (SSHS) of the 1999 season - a record. This hurricane had a major impact on numerous land areas in the Caribbean Sea. Moreover, Lenny was the first storm to have an extended west-to-east track across the central and eastern Caribbean Sea in the 113-year Atlantic tropical cyclone record.[11]

Storm names

  • Arlene
  • Bret
  • Cindy
  • Dennis
  • Emily
  • Floyd
  • Gert
  • Harvey
  • Irene
  • Jose
  • Katrina
  • Lenny
  • Maria (unused)
  • Nate (unused)
  • Ophelia (unused)
  • Philippe (unused)
  • Rita (unused)
  • Stan (unused)
  • Tammy (unused)
  • Vince (unused)
  • Wilma (unused)

Retirement

In Spring 2000, it was announced the World Meteorological Organization had retired the names Floyd and Lenny for the damage and deaths caused by the storms. They were replaced by Franklin and Lee for the hyperactive 2005 Atlantic hurricane season

References

  1. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL011999_Arlene.pdf
  2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL031999_Bret.pdf
  3. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL041999_Cindy.pdf
  4. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL051999_Dennis.pdf
  5. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL061999_Emily.pdf
  6. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL081999_Floyd.pdf
  7. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL091999_Gert.pdf
  8. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL101999_Harvey.pdf
  9. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL131999_Irene.pdf
  10. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL151999_Katrina.pdf
  11. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL161999_Lenny.pdf

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